Parasites-helminths and lamblia

Parasitosis is a separate group of diseases provoked by protozoa or worms (worms). According to statistics, helminthiasis and giardiasis occur in 78-80% of preschool and school children. Parasitic worms and arthropods poison the body with the result of their vital activity, which is associated with damage to vital systems and organs.

Giardia and worms - differences and similarities

infestation of children with parasites

Many people mistakenly believe that Giardia is a type of helminth that parasitizes the gastrointestinal tract. Both microorganisms are parasites and enter the body in the same way. However, worms and giardia are representatives of different classes, which differ in structure and degree of damage to the health of the child:

  • Giardia (giardia) are flagellate protozoa that parasitize the mucous membranes of the small intestine. Single cell microorganisms can exist in two forms:
    1. pores - the transformation of giardia into cysts when adverse conditions occur. In this form, it maintains its activity in the external environment, and in the case of penetration into living organisms, it begins to grow;
    2. vegetative - the development of active giardia in the intestine, from which it receives all the nutrients necessary for growth and reproduction.
  • Helminths (worms) are parasitic worms that can infect almost any type of tissue. There are more than 400 types of worms, but they all belong to one of the following types:
    1. tapeworms - echinococcus, broad lithinets, pig tapeworms;
    2. flukes - trematode;
    3. roundworms - toxocara, pinworms, whipworm.

Infection of children with parasites occurs when drinking water or food contaminated with cysts and eggs. Carriers of worm eggs and lamblia cysts are dogs and cats. The development of parasitosis is facilitated by mosquitoes, flies and other insects that carry the eggs of roundworms, echinococcus, etc. in the proboscis.

Clinical picture with giardiasis (giardiasis)

Parasitic infections are more frequently diagnosed in children aged 1 to 4 years. In about 30% of cases, parasitosis is asymptomatic and is detected during the diagnosis of other diseases during laboratory tests. Typical symptoms of giardiasis in children include:

  • decreased appetite;
  • bloated stomach;
  • dizziness;
  • poor sleep;
  • weight reduction;
  • fecal violation;
  • irritable;
  • pain in the navel;
  • epigastric discomfort;
  • enlargement of the liver;
  • bile duct dyskinesia;
  • allergic dermatitis.

In young children, giardiasis is more severe than in adults. Intoxication of the body with giardia waste products causes skin discoloration, the appearance of acne and dark circles under the eyes. Blood tests showed an increase in the concentration of eosinophils in the plasma. In feces, the parasite is not always detected, which is related to the peculiarity of its developmental cycle.

Clinical picture with helminthiasis

check for parasitic infections with symptoms

Symptoms of helminthiasis appear 2-4 weeks after the penetration of the parasite into the child's body. In about 1/3 of patients, the signs of parasitosis are weakly expressed, however, the toxic effects of their waste products do not cease. The main manifestations of helminthiasis in children include:

  • feverish condition;
  • exudative rash;
  • swelling of the face;
  • loose stools;
  • lymphadenopathy;
  • bloated stomach;
  • abdominal cramps;
  • restlessness;
  • insomnia;
  • chronic fatigue.

Note: the development of complications that accompany helminthiasis is caused by immunodeficiency, vitamin deficiency and mineral deficiency.

With massive invasion, vital organs are damaged, as evidenced by the development of myocarditis, pleuropneumonia, meningoencephalitis, etc. The degree of eosinophilia in helminthiasis depends on the patient’s immune status and the intensity of the infection.

Treatment of giardiasis

Giardiasis therapy is not initiated with the use of antiparasitic drugs, as this can lead to the development of serious toxic-allergic complications. In this case, treatment is carried out in three stages:

  1. Adhering to a diet program for 14 days helps eliminate toxicosis. To increase intestinal enzymatic activity and enhance general immunity, it is necessary to include whole grains, cereals, dried fruits and vegetable oils in the diet. To reduce the concentration of toxins in the blood, enterosorbents, choleretics and antihistamines are prescribed for children;
  2. Intensive antiparasitic therapy contributes to the removal of active lamblia and cysts. For the destruction of protozoa are usually used: "Nifuratel", "Metronidazole", "Ornidazole";
  3. To improve bowel movements, it is recommended to include fermented milk products, cereals and baked apples in the menu. You can strengthen your child’s immune system with the help of prebiotics, multivitamins and herbal adaptogens.

In acute giardiasis, a single -stage treatment regimen with antiparasitic drugs is prescribed. The most effective are: "Albendazole", "Tinidazole", "Mepacrine", "Furazolidone", etc.

Treatment of helminthiasis

treatment of helminthiasis with medications

The principle of deodorization is determined by the type of parasite that causes the development of the disease. The main goal of therapeutic and prophylactic measures is to reduce the amount of helminthic invasion in the intestine and to strengthen nonspecific immunity. The following groups of drugs can be used to destroy worms:

  • anti -nematodal - "mebendazole", "thiamazole";
  • antikestoid - "praziquantel", "niclosamide";
  • protivotrematodoznye.

Many of the above medications can cause side effects such as anemia and intestinal bleeding. To avoid deterioration of health during therapy, it is recommended to use "Filgrastim", "Dioxomethyltetrahydropyrimidine", "Ursodeoxycholic acid", "Colespitol".

In conclusion

Giardia and helminths are representatives of various types of parasitic microorganisms that enter the human body in a similar way. The clinical manifestations of helminthiasis and giardiasis are very different, which is associated with their different principles of development and localization of the attack. Antiparasitic therapies of the disease include a variety of drugs aimed at destroying specific types of pathogens.